Biologi Struktur

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Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Fri Oct 05, 2007 7:50 pm

thread ini khusus membahas struktur dan anatomi di mata pelajaran Biologi
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Fri Oct 05, 2007 7:50 pm

sel tumbuhan
sorry in english

Plant cell: the cell is a highly complex system that is the site of intense energy exchange and which presents vast interphase surfaces. Like all living organisms, it feeds itself, grows, multiplies and dies.
Plasmodesma: intercellular bridge.
Dictyosome: cellular organelle that elaborates sugars and proteins.
Chromatin: a colouring substance in the nucleus of the cell.
Nucleus: small spherical body with the cell nucleus.
Nuclear envelope: membrane surrounding the nucleolus.
Endoplasmic reticulum: a formation within the cytoplasm that plays a role in the production of various substances.
Peroxisome: cytoplasmic organelle which contains enzymes.
Chloroplast: granule of chlorophyll, which is needed for photosynthesis.
Mitochondria: granule that plays an important role in the respiration and energy-releasing reactions in living cells.
Cytosol: liquid part of the cytoplasm.
Free ribosome: cytoplasmic organelle which is responsible for protein synthesis.
Tonoplast: vacuolar membrane.
Vacuole: space with the cytoplasm of a cell containing various substances.
Cell wall: cell wall.
Plasma membrane: envelope of plasma.
Thylakoids: membranous molecular structures involved in photosynthesis.
Starch grain: starch granule.

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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Fri Oct 05, 2007 7:51 pm

struktur pohon


Structure of a tree: large ligneous plant whose stem is bare lose to the ground and carries branches at its top.
Branches: branches and boughs of a tree.
Top: the highest part of the tree.
Foliage (leaves): the leaves of a tree.
Branch: strong offshoot of the trunk of a tree.
Trunk: body of the tree.
Lateral roots: roots that grow outward from the tree, undeground, holding the tree in place and nourishing it.
Taproot: main root that grows vertically into the ground.
Root hair zone: small thread like parts of the root.
Radicle: small roots.
Bole: part of the tree between the ground and the first branches.
Twig: divisions of the branches.
Crown: part of the tree from the first branch to the top.

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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Fri Oct 05, 2007 7:51 pm

struktur tanaman



Structure of a plant: living being with cellulose walls, and often chlorophyll and starch; it has neither a mouth nor a nervous system; its mobility and sensitivity are weaker than those of animals.
Flower: coloured and usually scented product of a plant.
Fruit: product of a plant that follows the flower.
Seed: part of the plant essential for reproduction.
Leaf: part of the plant that is an offshoot of the stem and is usually green.
Stem: part of the plant that carries the leaves.
Root: underground structure which feeds the plant and holds it in place.
Shoot: above ground part of the plant.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Fri Oct 05, 2007 7:52 pm

Cabang kecil



Branch with alternate buds: small branch.
Terminal bud: plant formation that develops into a leaf, and is situated at the side of the end of the branch.
Lateral bud with three sets of bud scales: plant formation that develops into a leaf and is covered with three rows of small protective scales.
Lateral bud with two sets of bud scales: plant formation that develops into a leaf and is covered with two rows of small protective scales.
Spongy pith (core): centre part of a branch.
Auxiliary bud: part of a leaf that secretes a substance.
Blade: main part of the leaf.
Central vein: line dividing the leaf in two.
Lateral vein: line dividing, but not completely, the leaf into sections.
Tip: end of the leaf.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Sat Nov 03, 2007 7:56 pm

Branch with opposite buds

Branch with opposite buds: small branch.
Terminal bud: but at the end of a branch.
Ventilating area (lenticel): ventilating pore.
Lateral bud with three sets of bud scales: plant formation that develops into a leaf and is covered with three rows of small protective scales.
Woody pith (core): central core of the plant.
Bud scale scars from the preceding year: marks left by the terminal bud from the previous year.
Petiole: part of the plant connecting the leaf to the stem.
Venation: the veins of the leaf.
Blade: main part of the leaf.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Sat Nov 03, 2007 7:59 pm

Graminae (leaf)


Graminae (leaf): plant with a cylindrical stem and inconspicuous flower spikes.
Blade (lamina): main part of the leaf.
Ligule: single petal of the Graminae.
Bud: plant formation that develops into a leaf.
Node: point where the leaf is attached to the stem.
Internode: part of a branch between two nodes.
Adventitious roots: root that sprouts from the stem.
Auricle: small appendage at the base of a Graminae leaf.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Sat Nov 03, 2007 8:01 pm

Cross section of a tree trunk and stump


Cross section of a tree trunk and stump: trunk: part of the tree, between the roots and the branches, consisting of wood on the interior and bark on the exterior. Stump: the remainder of the turnk including the roots after the tree is felled.
Stump: the remainder of the turnk including the roots after the tree is felled.
Wood (xylem): plant substance creating wood.
Sapwood: most recent annual rings of a tree.
Cambium layer: growth area of a tree.
Heartwood: wood surrounding the core of the trunk.
Pith: central part of the trunk.
Growth rings: marks indicating the yearly growth of the trunk.
Bark: protective outside covering of the trunk.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Sat Nov 03, 2007 8:03 pm

Structure of a leaf


Structure of a leaf: chlorophyll containing outgrowth of a stem or branch; the site of photosynthesis.
Blade (lamina): main part of the leaf.
Vein: line dividing, but not completely, the leaf into sections.
Midrib: line dividing the leaf in two.
Leafstalk (petiole): part of the leaf that is attached to the stem.
Stem: part of the plant that carries the leaves.
Sheath: part of the leaf that attaches the petiole to the stem.
Stipules: small appendage at the base of the petiole.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Sat Nov 03, 2007 8:05 pm

Leaf shapes 1


Leaf shapes: main part of the leaf, usually alrge and flat.
Asymmetrical: completely unsymmetrical.
Acuminate: leaf that tapers into a long point.
Mucronate: leaf with an extended central vein.
Emarginate: notched at the end.
Ovoid: egg-shaped.
Obovate: resembling an upside-down egg.
Cordiform: heart-shaped.
Oblong: elongated shape.
Spatulate: shaped like a spatula.
Oval: elliptical.
Lanceolate: shaped like the head of a lance.
Acicular: needle-shaped.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Sat Nov 03, 2007 8:09 pm

Leaf shapes 2


Leaf shapes: main part of the leaf, usually alrge and flat.
Falcate: curved like a sickle.
Orbicular: circular.
Cochleate: shaped like a shell.
Subulate: ending in a point.
Cuneate: wedge-shaped.
Linear: long and narrow.
Sagittate: shaped like an arrowhead.
Hastate: halberd-shaped.
Panduriform: violin-shaped.
Lacerate and auriculate: leaf that seems to have been torn, and which is equipped with auricles.
Lobate: divided into lobes.
Flabellate: fan-shaped.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Sat Nov 03, 2007 8:11 pm

Leaf margins


Leaf margins: main part of the leaf, usually large and flat.
Undulate: having a wavy margin.
Sinuate: with a sinous margin.
Serrate: having a sharp edge.
Dentate: having a toothed margin.
Lobate: lobed.
Scalloped: with a scalloped margin.
Palmate: like the fingers of a hand spread open.
Digitate: finger like.
Bipinnatisect: with 2 levels of petioles which segments are sessile.
Tripinnatisect: with 3 levels of petioles which segments are sessile.
Pinnatisect: with similar parts on each side of the central axis and sessile.
Palmatisect: with palmate veins and lobes split to the base of the blade.
Pedate: palmately divided which lateral segments also divided.
Palmatilobate: palmate leaf with rounded lobes.
Bipartite: divided into two parts.
Tripartite: divided into three parts.
Palmatipartite: divided almost to the leaf margin.
Pinnatifid: with pinnated divisions.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Sat Nov 03, 2007 8:14 pm

Section of a leaf


Section of a leaf: chlorophyll containing outgrowth of a stem or branch; the site of photosynthesis.
Cuticle: thin superficial skin of a leaf.
Upper epidermis: outer layer of the leaf.
Spongy mesophyll: set of cells forming the central layer of a leaf.
Guard cell: part of the stoma.
Lower epidermis: lower layer of the leaf.
Stoma: organ of the leaf that allows the exchange of gases.
Air channel: place in which air circulates.
Phloem: conductive tissue that carries sap and other liquids.
Xylem: plant tissue of which wood is formed.
Vein: line outlining a leaf division.
Vertical palisade cell: set of cells forming the upper and lower layers of a leaf.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Sat Nov 03, 2007 8:34 pm

Different types of stems


Different types of stems: axis of a plant.
Stolon: running stems, which trail above the ground.
Tuber: subterranean swellings of plant axes.
Volubilate twining: a stem that will wind around objects for support.
Section of a bulb: division of a bulb that allows study of the interior.
Bulb: plant organ that allows for the growth of the plant every year.
Rhizome: stem that annually produces adventitious roots.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Dark.Ryu on Sat Nov 03, 2007 9:12 pm

Cross section of a stem


Cross section of a stem: axis of a plant.
Epidermis: outer layer of the stem.
Phloem vessels: tubes that carry sap.
Cambium: new parts of the stem.
Cork: protective covering of the stem.
Pith: central part of the stem.
Xylem vessels: woody part of the stem.
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by eGhA_cHaN on Sat Dec 08, 2007 6:06 pm

eH bS g tRansLatE bHs nA jD b IndO.. cOz aQ g bS b Ingg :P
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Re: Biologi Struktur

Post by Shinning_angel~dhe on Wed Jul 02, 2008 5:03 pm

Pa nih thread gak bs bahs yang lain???*dibidang biologi*
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Re: Biologi Struktur

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